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Cho Oyu Spring 8201m
Arsenal supporter (UK football club for you unedimacated yanks) who works with inner city kids in Minneapolis; marriage may be more appealing than warm bitter. Strong and intimidating with a #1 cut and tall enough to have caught every door frame in Tibet.
2007 update: tried Everest in 2006, didn't like it, and in 2007 tried Ama Dablam and didn't like it.
An adventure sports and environmental freelance videographer whose assignments have included Discovery channel and the History Channel projects. He loves the outdoors but this is his first break without a camera for many years. Some choice of holiday. Powerfully built, he is squat enough to have missed every doorframe in Tibet.
2007 update: despite having serious sleep issues on the cho Oyu expedition Bill has returned to Nepal to trek at least three times, and will be back many times more.
Should be a member of Gearheads Anonymous. Bill initially planned his own Shishapangma expedition but with only Steve committing, decided our expedition could work too. He has trained the hardest of anyone and lives at 2000m, a distinct advantage.
2007 update: Have Bill and Betsy had kids? Not sure, but surely that is the only reason they haven't returned here.
Is he really a adult movie star? No moustache says he is dreaming. Looking at his almost scrawny frame you might be just as surprised to find he is a mountaineer. His second job is a wordsmith for the Denver Post, so he has some natural altitude advantage too. Has been dragged on many training missions by Bill.
2007 update: as of last year Steve was still contemplating returning to Nepal.
Bill Lhotta's other training partner in more ways than one; they are engaged. She's a teacher by trade and Bill is as tough a class as they come. Assuming she can overcome her usual 14,000ft headache she will join us for the ABC Puja then return to Nepal to trek around the Annapurna Circuit.
Has the chance to be the first Finnish man to summit Cho Oyu, but it was Ms Hawley who told us this, he is far too modest to mention it himself. He previously worked on hydro project in Nepal and speaks Nepali, and was surprised to find that he had previously trekked over the Tashi Labtsa with Pasang in 1995.
2007 update: Bengt has returned to Nepal several times in the intervening years and trekked with his family.
P Pasang Sherpa
Fearless climbing sherpa who has summitted Cho Oyu two times and many other mountains. He is goal-driven but cares for his staff and has friends everywhere. After many years of climbing for money he really enjoys technical challenges now after having taken an advanced climbing course where he learnt to belay and place protection safely.
2007 update; Pasang is now a union representative at Explore Himalaya and still treks and climbs.
A likeable scoundrel, strong and hard-working and has worked with Pasang many times, including on Shishapangma in 2000.
2007 update: sadly, Dendi fell in a crevasse on Shishapangma south side while working for a Korean expedition and died.
A hard-working expedition cook with a winning smile. Despite his diminutive stature he is keen to carry a few loads and really wants to summit as well. He has just returned from a Tharpu Chuli (Tent Peak) expedition with Pasang.
2007 update: Namgyal is now one of the most competent expedition sirdars in Nepal, has climbed Everest multiple times and still works with Jamie and Explore Himalaya.
Expedition organizer and perpetually busy Kathmandu 'socialite', whose enthusiasm has resulted in a self managed expedition business, trekking guide books and enough Nepali to play sirdar on exploratory treks.
2007 update: Jamie has now climbed Everest three times, Cho Oyu five times, was the first Kiwi to summit Broad Peak, and most importantly, has not yet had a death on an expedition.
A Hungarian with a wry sense of humour, he is warming up for an Everest expedition. He has joined us for base camp and ABC services and will climb higher independently.
Kathmandu 14-18 April
Everything worked out smoothly in Kathmandu, even Peter's late booking of the trip, thanks especially to Bijay at the office. We sorted gear and bought the last items like cheap down mittens and down booties.
To ABC 19-28 April
We travelled in without problems but the 5000m/16,400ft Chinese Base Camp was constantly windy. We established Advanced Base Camp at the normal place at 5700m/18,700ft. Here we learnt that the of the 9 Swiss that had summitted before we had even arrived, ALL had suffered some frostbite. They summitted 11 April, very early.
A little later two Austrians reached the summit plateau, although it is debatable whether they reached the true summit in the difficult conditions.
Highlight: Steve walking out of his tent oblivious to the fact that he was covered in feathers. Apparently during the night a shark attacked him but he managed to kick back and didn't lose any limbs - the shark was in his dreams, the kicking wasn't - he kicked a hole in his sleeping bag.
ABC 29 April - 1 May
Highlight: Namgyal's pizza - Bill asked in all seriousness if it was a takeaway job from Fire and Ice, the best pizza restaurant in Kathmandu, which he had obviously been dreaming about.
Altitude sickness can follow strange patterns. Betsy reckoned she has thrown up on almost half of the '14 thousanders' in Colorado, something that if I had known, I would have probably rejected her for the trip. Anyway, she was fine until after the Puja at ABC, our fourth night there when she began developing rales, the first real sign of pulmonary odema. Bill, her fiancé, immediately gave fast-acting Nifedapine 10mg and shortly after another 10mg while she walked on the spot for half an hour. She soon felt perfect, but sensibly decided to go down the following day, a day earlier than planned. I escorted her down.
A couple of hundred metres out of camp I could see she was weak and took the heaviest items out of her pack and half a kilometre took her pack - she was definitely beginning to develop real altitude sickness (HACE + HAPE), the first case of anyone in a group I have been managing. Betsy knew it too and willingly took puffs of Ventorlin when she began coughing and that helped, without having to go to Nifedapine. It also seemed she was developing Cerebral Oedema, having progressed beyond a headache to nausea. The potent Ibuprofen-Paracetamol mix brought the nausea back to a headache and another almost fixed that. And we plodded on, no need for Nifedipine or Dexamethazone. Eventually the rollercoaster trail began to lose real altitude and slowly she began to feel better. We didn't make Chinese BC, instead camped by some friendly yak herders. After a reasonable sleep we enjoyed tea in their very traditional tent, quite a cultural experience.
Although not as strong as normal, Betsy carried her own pack to Chinese BC where Mr Goh, the Chinese liaison officer greeted us. Although Betsy was a day early he ordered a Landcruiser and mentioned that he had to go Zhangmu for a day or two as well. It was not to be. An Asian Trekking Cho Oyu group of two Austrians, two South Africans and their Nepali sirdar Durga arrived in the afternoon desperate to get out. Durga was especially desperate to get them out because although the South Africans hadn't summitted, one of them had promised him the summit bonus if he could get them to Kathmandu in four days from Camp 1. It was now day 3. Chivalrously Mr Goh offered to stay behind and squeeze everyone into the only Landcruiser and they did indeed reach Kathmandu the next day.
First acclimatization trip 2-4 May
I left once Betsy was safely away in the Landcruiser and stayed part of the way up. The next day I made it to ABC. Meanwhile everyone else had been on the first acclimatization trip, first a night at Depot Camp at approx 6100m, then two nights at Camp 1. Bill Miller had had a history of insomnia at altitude and while he had slept well enough at Chinese BC, higher than he had previously been able to sleep, ABC was too high and this trip was taking it out of him. Bengt too was thinking he needed more time to acclimatize and stayed two nights at Depot.
I took a light load to Depot camp over the rough rock covered ice and stayed there a night to catch up on acclimatization.
The summit push 7-14 May
After a couple of days back at ABC we began a slow summit push. What has always interested me is techniques to acclimatize and here was my chance to put theory into practice. It has always amazed me that expeditions (especially the main commercial operators) take huge leaps in altitude, say 5700m (ABC) to 6450m (Camp 1) without intermediate camps. I used to think that the '300m a day rule' was somehow irrelevant about 5500m. it isn't. So after a night for some, two nights for others, at Camp 1 we established Camp 1.5 at around 6850m.
The second concept that fascinates me and strikes me as wrong, is the speed at which people rush ever higher up the mountain, simply heading to the next camp a day later. At least for the first time I know you need time, not just time to avoid altitude sickness, but time to get stronger or partially acclimatize to the altitude. It is true that in some ways your body does begin deteriorating, but in most others it is getting stronger. So we moved up slowly. Hugo and Steve spend one night at C1, two at C1.5 then three nights at C2 at 7100m. Bengt, Bill Lhotta and myself spent two nights at C1 then after a night at C1.5 Bill moved to C2 while I stayed with Bengt a second night. The following morning Bengt knew he wasn't strong enough to safely go up to C2, and more importantly, get himself down, so he turned back clear that he had made the right decision to abandon his bid.
Meanwhile Bill Miller was also having a struggle. While we were at C1 he had stayed at Depot Camp to see if he could sleep, but the insomnia proved almost incurable, even strong sleeping tablets gave him only three hours relief, so shattered and with a knee-ankle problem he returned to ABC intent on heading down to Chinese BC for a couple of days to recover. He never did make it back up but showed great fortitude, somewhat enforced, by staying down there until the end of the expedition.
So at last myself, Pasang and Dendi plus Bill L, Steve and Hugo were at Camp 2. This was to be our highest 'permanent' camp, Camp 3 being only temporary, and up here you really feel high and exposed to what the elements are throwing at the mountain. Hugo and Steve swore to themselves that once they descended that was it; they hated the two stretches of blue ice climbing on far too thin fixed ropes, so from being a possible summit bid, this was most definitely their only summit bid. We had better get it right.
Although our Camp 2 was well organized, it is hard to imagine just how uncomfortable waiting and living that high is. It is cold, although the sun can me mercilessly hot sometimes too, the sheer effort of breathing let alone doing anything else, and the endless melting snow for water. To most people it is a miserable, never to be repeated experience, add uncertain weather and it is demoralising. Basically the weather had been shite, consistent only in its uncertainty. It snowed and it fined up, the wind howled - an ordinary gust was measured at 127kmh/79mph, and it was still, but never for long. Jagged Globe (a UK company) with a team of five and good Sherpa support were at Camp 3 but turned back after two nights, the Spanish forecast said the third night would be bad. In fact it was fine and a good summit day, but nobody was in position. However many expeditions were hopeful that this was the beginning of a fine spell, and moved up behind us.
We moved up to Camp 3, prepared for a summit bid and hoped. Amazingly enough Namgyal, our cook turned up also keen to summit. At midnight it was fine with mainly light winds and we further brewed up. Pasang had dictated the start time as 3am but IMG (International Mountain Guides), who were on their 2nd summit attempt and down from 8 clients to 2, moved past at 3am.
The summit bid 14 May 2001
Soon after I set off and at the top of the first set of fixed ropes realized that I was moving fast, I had to wait half an hour for everyone else. Steve had lost a glove, luckily Pasang had a spare, and Hugo had cold feet. Partly this was my fault, in Kathmandu I had mentioned that I didn't think his system of Asolo Expedition boots and neoprene overgaiters was warm enough and was told bluntly he wasn't going to buy more boots just for Cho Oyu. It hadn't occurred to me to give him the set of electric foot warmers that I didn't have time to set up for myself. Steve had some and they were working well, and Bill L had some in brand new Millets (One Sports; the warmest boots in the world). From waiting my feet were cold in old One Sports but not seriously so. At the top of the fixed rope across the 'yellow' band Pasang yelled that we should go straight up the snow rather than following the other teams. Above the small snow field the rock was tricky, at least at this altitude and with crampons on. It could be considered part of the challenge but considering the risks and the numbers of climbers, fixing several hundred metres of hand line might be more sensible.
I thought I was thinking sharply enough. The first test was Hugo turning back, he could feel his feet freezing. I thought that was the end of his summit attempt. Amazingly enough, once he returned to Camp 3 the circulation returned and he began to climb again. But what showed me up to myself was at around 8000m Steve began asking for snacks saying that he had lost his Powergel. I assumed he had lost one, but the next day I found out he had lost the lot, some 6 or so packets and that was his only food. I assumed he must have more and was not worried or particularly helpful, giving him only a couple of things. Pasang and Namgyal were going really strong so I waved them on ahead thinking that at least they would get a chance to summit and then if anyone else turned back, pick them up on the return. But although I was worried at our pace, we plodded on. Finally at the summit plateau, where the going becomes easy, I could surge ahead, passing the IMG group who were all on oxygen. Foolishly I called Namgyal back to the true summit for pictures then he headed down quickly. His aim was to return to ABC to cook for Bengt.
His summit was perhaps the most remarkable of the season for he had carried a load to Camp 1 but had not slept higher than ABC before coming up to C1.5 for a night then C3 then the summit!
With sheer willpower Bill Lhotta and Steve Lipsher summitted and spent at least half an hour on top taking pictures. There was high cloud and soon a hazy high cloud ate Everest and Lhotse, but still the panorama was amazing. I made sure that I was on absolutely the highest point, last time being criticised for stopping early (50? horizontal metres and 1-2 vertical metres) in cloud the first time in 1999.
As we headed down I was surprised to meet Hugo at 8030m following 3 Germans up. I implored him to turn back as soon as any wind gusts began and reminded him of tiredness.
I had previously warned everyone that getting down was just as important and that tiredness or even altitude sickness can catch up with you while descending. Approximately one in ten people who have summitted Everest die on the way down. In fact although Steve was shattered, it was Dendi that slowed so I watched him and ensured he had drink and food, which picked him up somewhat. There was also a Spanish guy (Fernandes) moving slowly and almost drunkenly but since he was almost keeping pace with Dendi I wasn't too worried. In the middle of a rock section he lagged further.
Tired but successful we made Camp 3 without incident and packed for heading down to Camp 2. Thank goodness there is nothing too tricky on the way down, for some of us were stumbling with tiredness (but not AMS). While Pasang and I packed a tent another Spanish (Carlos) arrived and flopped down at C3. He didn't move for perhaps an hour, but again I didn't think anything of it, but higher on the mountain a story was unfolding. The Germans had began late from C2 and now on the summit plateau conditions were deteriorating. It was obvious they were getting themselves into trouble so wisely Hugo turned back. Almost back at C3 the fixed ropes were blocked by a fallen climber. Strangely Hugo thought it was a Sherpa playing a joke - altitude does that to you! It was Fernandes utterly exhausted, he had fallen and been held by the rope and was lying in the snow waiting to die. Carlos had finally summoned the energy to walk the 150m out of Camp 3 to pick him up. Hugo was forced to help since he was also on the rope. They ended up sharing a tent with only Hugo's sleeping bag and mat and food we had left him. Apparently Fernandes and Carlos repeatedly threw up. Not the most pleasant of nights.
The Germans finally returned around 8pm, although their leader didn't find this out until a morning radio call. At least one was snow blind and one suffered frostbite.
Meanwhile we flopped into Camp 2. Namgyal was there feeling the effects of the altitude but wasn't actually sick. The next day myself, Pasang and Dendi cleared Camp 2 in bad weather, but by the time we packed up Camp 1.5 the weather had improved (and yes, the loads were big!) at Camp 1 we lightened our loads and everyone made ABC, except Hugo who gratefully collapsed at our Depot Camp.
A quick exit 16-20 May
And now for the tricks. Everyone was keen to escape quickly so I tried to arrange with Bill Miller at Chinese BC that they leave the day after, a Landcruiser full, and the plan worked. So myself and the crew cleared the mountain and packed and finally, after quite a mission, arrived back in Kathmandu three days after them.
So out of five team members, Bill Lhotta and Steve Lipsher summitted, Hugo came very, very close (call that 50%?) and all four crew including myself summitted. No injuries, accidents or frostbite. The Swiss group suffered frostbite in nine out of nine, a ridiculous number of cases, clearly something was wrong; we are unsure whether the Austrians actually summitted; one of the Spanish, Fernandes nearly died; the Germans suffered snowblindness and probably frostbite, and one of their paragliding team took off into a crevasse necessitating a six hour rescue. Peter Banai made it to Camp 3, despite his tent being destroyed by wind earlier but was struggling and suffered a burnt tongue and lips. IMG, to their credit did get two of their eight clients up, two guides (all on oxygen) and a Sherpa without problems. Jagged Globe, while well organized failed on Cho Oyu (and on Shishapangma in 2000 when I was there). The group of ten Australians had fun but without Sherpa support found the going to be tough and gave up at Camp 2. Fabrizio and Hamish and their team failed (they tried White Limbo on Everest afterwards, but the rockfall was really bad). Another couple of Germans succeeded, but it must have been a close thing since they were so tired that after the summit day they could only make it to Camp 1, being utterly exhausted, even though they needed to be at Chinese BC the next day. As we left two Koreans, a father and son were making a summit bid with oxygen, otherwise they had no chance, taking perhaps more than six hours between Camp 2 and 3. Three Spanish also set off.
To be fair the weather was not particularly kind or consistent. For example Everest was not summitted until 19 May on the south side and later on the north. Famously Rob Hall used to summit 10 May. The fixed ropes were barely adequate, although we didn't put our fears where our mouth's were. However next time we will.
I think the harsh conditions took their toll, but mostly climbing 8000m mountains is ridiculously tough, far tougher than most people expect with they book/plan an expedition. Myself and Pasang will be at it again in May 2002.